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GMAT Critical Reasoning: ¿de qué se trata?

 GMAT CRITICAL REASONING

las preguntas de GMAT critical reasoning tienen relación indirecta con tu habilidad de poder defender tus argumentos y encontrar fallas en los argumentos de los demás. Recuerda que un argumento es un razonamiento que prueba o refuta algo, generando conclusiones a raíz de dos o más premisas. De allí que el tema principal de estos problemas son la lectura y comprensión adecuada de premisas y conclusiones, identificando los roles que cumplen los enunciados en un texto argumentativo. De allí que pondrá a prueba tu razonamiento crítico, una habilidad fundamental para los MBAs. Alrededor de 10 preguntas son de este tipo. Hay 8 categorías para estas preguntas:

  1. A raíz de un argumento, identificar de entre las opciones cuál de ellas lo debilita
  2. Con base en un argumento, reconocer cuál opción lo fortalece
  3. El argumento tendrá una premisa y una conclusión. Como los silogismos lógicos requieren de al menos dos premisas, tu trabajo será encontrar la faltante en las opciones
  4. El argumento no tendrá conclusión. La prueba es encontrar cuál es la que mejor se adapta a las premisas de entre las opciones.
  5. En el texto argumentativo vendrán subrayadas algunas oraciones. Saber qué función cumplen es el objetivo de esta pregunta, ya que elegirás la opción que responda a esto.
  6. Paradoja. Este tipo de pregunta no es muy común. Vendrán dos enunciados que pareceran contradictorios, a pesar de ambos ser verdaderos. De entre las opciones, elegirás la oración que funja como síntesis, de manera que se comprenda el por qué de la paradoja.
  7. Del argumento, identificarás la opción que contenga información valiosa para evaluar si el argumento tiene premisas verdaderas o falsas.
  8. Estas opciones normalmente serán más largas, y tenderán a ser párrafos de dos o más líneas.
  9. El pasaje tendrá un espacio en blanco. Elegirás la opción que mejor quede en el espacio, de manera que el argumento tenga lógica.

A diferencia de comprensión lectora, nota cómo este tipo de preguntas no piden información del texto, el objetivo de este, o inferir. Tendrás que ir más allá y razonar si lo que se dice es cierto o es falso, con base en la robustez de sus premisas y conclusiones. Ejemplos son los siguientes, obtenidos de GMAT Official Guide, 2016:

  • Pregunta 1: Debilitar el argumento

Vasquez - Morrell Assurance specializes in insuring manufacturaers. Whenever a policyholder makes a claim, a claims adjuster determines the amount Vasquz-Morrel is obligated to pay. Vasquez-Morrel is cutting its staff of claims adjusters by 15 percent. To ensure that the company’s ability to handle claims promptly is affected as little as possible by the staff cuts, consultants recommend that Vasquez - Morrel lay off those adjusters who now take longest, on average, to complete work on claims assigned to them.Which of the following, its true, most seriously calls into question the consultant’s criterion for selecting the staff to be laid off?

  • If the time that Vasquez - Morrell takes to settle claims increases significantly, it could lose business to other insurers
  • Supervisors at Vasquez - Morrell tend to assign the most complex claims to the most capable adjusters
  • At Vasquez-Morrell, no insurance payments are made until a claims adjuster has reached a final determination on the claim
  • There are no positions at Vasquez-Morrell to which staff currently employed as claims adjusters could be reassigned 
  • The premiums that Vasquez - Morrell currently charges are no higher than those charged for similar coverage by competitors.

Pregunta 2: Conclusión The percentage of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is higher in Merton County than in any other county. However, the percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more is higher in Sommer County.If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true?

  • The percentage of households with an annual income of $80,000 is higher in Sommer County than in Merton County
  • Merton County has the second highest percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more
  • Some households in Merton County have an annual income between $40,000 and $60,000
  • The number of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 i greater in Merton County than in Sommer County
  • Average annual household income is higher in Sommer County than in Merton County

Pregunta 3 : Paradoja During the 1980s and 1990s, the annual number of people who visited the Sordellian mountains increased continually, and many new ski resorts were built. Over the same period, however, the number of visitors to ski resorts who were caught in avalanches decreased, even though there was no reduction in the annual number of avalanches in the Sordellian Mountains.Which of the following, if true in the Sordellian Mountains during the 1980s and 1990s, most helps to explain the decrease?

  • Avalanches were most likely to happen when a large new snowfall covered an old layer of snow
  • Avalanches destroyed at least some buildings in the Sordellian Mountains in every year
  • People planning new ski slopes and other resort facilities used increasingly accurate information about which locations are likely to be in the path of avalanches
  • The average length of stay for people visiting the Sordellian Mountains increased slightly
  • Construction of new ski resorts often led to the clearing of wooded areas that had helped to prevent avalanches

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